We identify variables in the environment which precede the behavior and incorporate changes to those variables to make problem behavior less likely. By reducing those variables that evoke or bring about behavior, you as the parent can make behavior less likely. For example: Sam hits himself and you give him attention (before), now you give Sam attention on a schedule or continuously so there is less need for him to hit himself.
We identify variables in the environment which follow behavior and incorporate changes to those variables to make behavior less likely. Most problem behavior continues to occur because of a source of reinforcement in the environment (what the person experiences), and will continue to do so unless that consequence changes. Through reinforcement, extinction, and sometimes punishment, parents change what follows the behavior and make it less likely to occur. For example: Sam hits himself and you give him attention (before), now when Sam hits himself you withhold attention.
Just as all problem behavior occurs for a reason, all pro-social behavior must occur for a reason too! Through identifying appropriate alternative behaviors and changing antecedent and consequence procedures, we can make positive pro-social behaviors more likely to occur than problem behavior. A good replacement behavior is: easier than problem behavior, results in more or quicker reinforcement, and results in the SAME type of reinforcement (function) as the problem behavior. For example: Sam hits himself and you give him attention, Sam could touch a large red button which the pre-recorded message “excuse me” which results in immediate and heightened attention from you.